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    مراقب ساحة دار الترجمة الصورة الرمزية دار الترجمة
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    افتراضي The Story of Andalusia : episode 14


    The Story of Andalusia
    Dr. Amr Khaled
    Ep 14



    Historical Facts



    Abdul-Rahman III (or Al-Nasir (The Defender)) was the grandson of Abdul-Rahman Al-Dakhil. He ruled Andalusia for 50 years full of reform. His aim was to unite Andalusia, because when he had ascended to the throne Andalusia was struggling with many problems that yielded it weak. Three kingdoms from the north: Leon, Castile, and Barcelona, threatened Andalusia, as well as the Shiite Fatimid kingdom from the Maghreb. It was the first time that Andalusia face threats from the Maghreb. The Fatimid kingdom financed the rebels inside Andalusia against the ruler, especially that of Omar Ibn-Hafson. Omar Ibn-Hafson was an apostate who called himself Samuel Ibn-Hafson to gain the satisfaction of the kingdom of Leon, thus had the support of both the Fatimid from the south and Leon from the north.

    Confronting the Difficulties and Finding Solutions

    Abdul-Rahman III was only 22 years old when he became the ruler of Andalusia. To strengthen Andalusia, in three years, he started to assign posts and responsibilities to the people of experience and not merely to those of trust. He established firm control and surveillance on all authorities to ensure their smooth running, to create co-existence between Muslims and Christians, and to grant freedom of criticism to the public. Then, he turned to quash Ibn-Hafson. To uproot his evils, Abdul-Rahman started to cut the Fatimid supplies to Ibn-Hafson. Thus, Abdul-Rahman seized Gibraltar where the Fatimid supplies used to pass to Ibn-Hafson then he burnt all the vessels carrying his supplies and arms. He besieged this area for a few months until he made sure that all the supplies were completely cut. That was when Ibn-Hafson called for truce. Abdul-Rahman agreed on the condition that Ibn-Hafson would turn in all his forts. Ibn-Hafson turned in 32 forts and surrendered. Ibn-Hafson died two years later.

    Still there were many other rebels inside Andalusia who were still active. Abdul-Rahman aimed further to put down these rebels as well. He said, “I will not waste my time fighting these rebels. I will fight Leon to secure the whole Andalusia.” He took his army, fought Leon, and defeated it. When the rebels realized that Abdul-Rahman was defending their home, they put out their rebellions and joined him fighting Leon. Hence, Abdul-Rahman III in his 29th year, with intelligence and foresight, united Andalusia.

    In 316 A.H.1, Abdul-Rahman III declared himself the Caliph of Andalusia and Muslims. He did not wait until the Fatimid come to fight him, he rather captured the port of Cueta, entered Tangier, and fought the Fatimid on their land.

    Once, there was a drought and Abdul-Rahman Al-Munzir wanted to pray for rain. Before he began his prayer, he asked Abdul-Rahman III’s assistant about the Caliph. The assistant replied that he left the Caliph sitting on the floor with his cheeks on the dirt asking Allah not to perish the people because of his own sins. Abdul-Rahman Al-Munzir smiled and said “If the mighty of earth has relented, then surely the Al-Mighty will bestow His mercy upon us.” Indeed, heavy rains poured.

    Abdul-Rahman III’s Accomplishments

    One of Abdul-Rahman’s many accomplishments was the ambition of acquiring a unique Andalusian product. Thus, he started to plant olives all over Andalusia, which Spain is still famous for to this day. He also founded the City of Az-Zahara, an architectural masterpiece. A large number of architects participated in its construction. About 6000 stones were transferred to it daily. It had 4300 columns and its entire floor was tiled. Abdul-Rahman motivated all those who participated in building this city to innovate and not to imitate. Each one who mastered a column would sign his name at the top of it. He also surrounded the city with high trees. Contagious creativity and innovativeness flourished among all scientists and intellects in the city which granted them the opportunity and motivation to unleash their imagination and further pursue knowledge.

    Abdul-Rahman III lived in the city of Az-Zahara where he used to receive royalty from all over the world who were enchanted with the city and its beauty. Spain celebrated the millennium of the city in 2002 by inviting the artists to hold their exhibitions and establish their museums in the city.

    Now, when the tourists visit Az-Zahra, the tour guide explains that the area has a mosque because Muslims pray five times a day. Then, the tour guide would show them the taps for water explaining that Muslims have to perform ablution before praying. Indeed, this is how our ancestors managed to promote for Islam and publicize its basic to this day!

    Abdul-Rahman’s III Death

    When Abdul-Rahman III died, they found in his bedroom a piece of paper where he had written “I counted the days of pleasure in my life and found them to be 14 days.” I do not think Abdul-Rahman was exaggerating for he was a man made to put down the revolts, quash enemies, establish a state, innovate, and build magnificent architecture, and contribute to the establishment of a culture. Indeed, he was one of the figures behind the success of Andalusia.

    Hundreds of years after his death, Abdul-Rahman III’s legacy still beautifully exists to this day. The olive trees he planted, which Spain is famous for, fill its lands until now. His beautiful legacy and contributions embellish Spain to this day.




    Translated by: The English Convoy – Dar al-Tarjama
    AmrKhaled.net © جميع حقوق النشر محفوظة
    This Article may be published and duplicated freely for private purposes, as long as the original source is mentioned. For all other purposes you need to obtain the prior written approval of the website administration. For info: management@daraltarjama.com

    _________________________________________________ _________________________

    1 A.H = after hijrah of the Prophet from Makkah to Madinah in 622 A.D.


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